A federation operator is an organisation that operates an identity federation. Operation typically includes at minimum:
Many federations also offer:
Most academic federations are operated by the national research and education network (NREN). These organisations typically also operate the network connecting the universities and research organisations within a country. A few examples of NRENs that are also the operator of the national federation are shown in the image above.
A list of known federation operators in the academic sector can be found on the REFEDS web page.